WCVI DOCUMENTS DATABASE

Your Search Results

NEW SEARCH

    
Clear List

Your search for Habitat returned 322 records. Showing Records 276 to 305. Please Select a Record to View.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Biogeoclimatic Units of Central and Southern Vancouver Island

Year: 1979

Author(s): K. Klinka, Ministry of Forests, Vancouver Forest Region, Vancouver; F.C. Nuszdorfer, Ministry of Forests, Vancouver Forest Region, Vancouver; L. Skoda, Canadian Cartographics Limited, 508 Clarke Road, Coquitlam, B.C. V3J 3X2

Type: Book

Description:
Ecosystematic classification at the biogeoclimatic level has been refined further in that a new category, the biogeoclimatic variant, is described. Also, the ecological significance of biogeoclimatic units is substantiated by statistical treatment of climatic data. It is repeatedly shown by the analysis that the zonal ecosystems are reliable predictors of regional climate. A comparison of teh annual actual evapotranspiration of biogeoclimatic units, suggested as an index of plant activity, is carried out. The ost characteristic features of each biogeoclimatic zone, subzone, and variant are described with the aid of photographs. The distribution of these units on central and southern Vancouver Island is shown on a map produced at teh scale of 1:500 000.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Biogeoclimatic Units of Central and Southern Vancouver Island

Year: 1979

Author(s): K Klinka; F. C. Nuszdorfer; L. Skoda

Type: Report (published)

Description:
"Ecosystem classification at the biogeoclimatic level has been refined further in that a new category, the biogeoclimatic variant, is described. Also, the ecological significance of biogeoclimatic units is substantiated by statistical treatment of climatic data. It is repeatedly shown by the analysis that the zonal ecosystems are reliable predictors of regional climate. A comparison of the annual actual evapotranspiration of biogeoclimatic unites, suggested as an index of plant activity, is carried out. The most characteristic features of each biogeoclimatic zone, subzone, and variat are described with the aid of photographs. The distribution of these units on central and southern Vancouver Island is shown on a map produced at the scale of 1:500,000."

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Catalogue of Salmon Streams and Spawning Escapements of Statistical Area 24 (Clayoquot Sound)

Year: 1979

Author(s): R. F. Brown; M. J. Comfort; D. E. Marshall

Type: Report (published)

Description:
Catalogue containing each stream's location, spawning distribution, barriers and points of difficult ascent, escapement records and other general data pertaining to the stream. The catalogue also includes a topographical map of the stream's location and in some cases a sketch which further describes the surrounding area.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Winter Ecology of a Black Oystercatcher Population

Year: 1979

Author(s): E. B. Hartwick; W. Blaylock

Type: Newspaper Article

Description:
The movements and foraging of Black Oystercatchers were studied during winter. Many birds concentrated in mudflats during daytime where they fed on mussels (Mytilus edulis). The birds ignored other potential prey but had little impact on the mussel beds. More time was spent foraging in beds with higher densities of mussels and this behaviour is discussed in relation to a model of optimal foraging.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Energetic Impact of Birds of Cleland Island and Vicinity

Year: 1979

Author(s): Betty Ann Snyder

Type: Book Chapter

Description:
Nutritional requirements of birds of Cleland Island and vicinity were estimated for the breeding season, using census and transect data to calculate bird densities. The fish requirements of the birds were compared to the total fish production and primary production estimates for Cleland Island and other bird communities. The birds needed .74 g fish/metre squared/four months or 30% of estimated fish production.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Birds of the Pacific Rim National Park

Year: 1978

Author(s): David Hatler; R.Wayne Campbell; Adrian Dorst

Type: Book

Description:
From the Objectives section on page 9:" The purpose of the studies leading to this work was to identify and describe the avifauna, and their pertinent habitats, in and around the Pacific Rim National Park to provide for the visitors who are intersted in the birds, the Park, and for those of the birds, themselves.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Distribution and Movements of the Salamander Aneides ferreus (Cope, 1869) on Cleland Island, BC

Year: 1978

Author(s): Renata Jaremovic

Type: Academic Thesis

Description:
Very few studies have been carried out on the ecology of the Plethodontid salamander Aneides ferreus (Cope, 1869). The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution and movements of this species in relation to environmental variation on Cleland Island, BC. The microdistribution of Aneides is basically the result of behavioral strategies which tend to buffer variation in moisture and temperature. This study consisted of collecting mark-recapture data, monitoring micro- and macroclimatic conditions, and displacing individuals varying distances from their homes. Homing behavior and home site tenacity increase the probability of encoutering favorable conditions by increasing familiarity with a localized area. Under very dry conditions, salamanders may move into underground shelters where conditions are more favorable. Coiling and aggregation function to keep salamanders in one place during severe conditions by reducing evaporative surface area and thus the risk of desiccation. Behavioral strategies may vary with habitat type and salamander size. My data indicate either that home range size is smaller or that home site tenacity is greater in salamanders living in a wet habitat that those living in a dry habitat. Behavioral strategies may differ in large and small salamanders and probably relate strongly to physiological tolerance limits and dispersal capabilities. The seemingly flexible nature of salamander behavior keeps Aneides finely attuned to its microenvironment and thus allows this poikliotherm to modify its surroundings to a limited degree.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Recovery Rate in Three Exploited Sea Urchin Populations from 1972 to 1977

Year: 1978

Author(s): P. A. Breen; B. E. Adkins; D. C. Miller

Type: Report (published)

Description:
Three sites near Tofino were examined in order to determine the rate of recovery of red sea urchin populations after harvesting. At all sites, harvesting had taken place in 1972. At two sites, the number now present is much less than the number that were removed in 1972. On the third site, the number removed is not known, but there are still large areas of empty sea urchin habitat. From size distributions observed in 1974, 1976, and 1977, we conclude that the number of juveniles recruited annually is only 5 to 10% of the present population. The effect of harvesting on the algal communities is variable, depending on the area and the intensity of harvesting. At one site, harvesting appears to have had no effect, while at the other two sites Nereocystis and Pterygophora have increased in abundance. The effect on other invertebrates cannot be determined.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Some observations on foraging by Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani Audubon)

Year: 1977

Author(s): E. B. Hartwick

Type: Journal Article

Description:
Several aspects of the foraging of Black Oystercatchers are described in this study. Adults showed a tendency to bring similar prety to the young on successive occasions. Adults showed a variety of responses to potential prey. When presented with artificial arrays of limpets, adults showed definite responses to different sizes of limpets. The responses are discussed in relation to a current model of optimal foraging.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: The Coastal Mink on Vancouver Island, British Columbia

Year: 1976

Author(s): David Hatler, University of Alaska

Type: Academic Thesis

Description:
The mink (Mustela vison evagor) which frequents the Pacific coastal shores of Vancouver island, British Columbia, forages primarily in the marine intertidal zone, feeding mostly upon small crustaceans and fish. Decapod crabs of the family Cancridae are taken throughout the year, but especially in sumer when they move into intertidal waters to mate and moult. Kelp crabs (Pugettia) and most fish species appear to the be most vulnerable in winter, when storms create instability in their near-shore habitat. Water depth, substrate particle size, and the degree of protection from heavy wave action are among the most important factors influencing the success of mink hunting for these organisms. Along these food-rich shores, most mink hunted at success rates which would have provided their daily requirements in less than two hours of hunting activity. Nevertheless, observations of individuals which hunted with less than average success, under various conditions,indicate that accessibility to food varies with place and time, especially relative to tide level. ...

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Oil Threat to Birds on the Canadian West Coast

Year: 1975

Author(s): Kees Vermeer; Rebecca Vermeer

Type: Journal Article

Description:
The potential effects of oil spills on aquatic birds and their feeding habitat on the Canadian west coast are assessed and the related literature on oil pollution is reviewed. Present shipping and transport of oil and increased tanker traffic along the entire British Columbia coast in 1977 constitute a threat to the destruction of birds from oil spillage. Concentrations of seabirds will be most vulnerable to spills. Three major colonies along the coast of British Columbia are the Langara Region, the southeast coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Scott Islands. Alcids and storm petrels are the most numerous seabirds along the British Columbia coast. Alcids are among the birds most vulnerable to oil pollution whereas storm petrels are less threatened by spills than alcids because they spend more time in the air and only dive occasionally. Waterfowl, especially diving ducks, will be vulnerable to spills during the winter as they concentrate in large numbers in estuaries and inlets along the British Columbia coast. The large wintering populations of ducks, geese, and grebes along the Fraser Delta foreshore and Boundary Bay will be endangered because of their nearness to tanker and shipping traffic. Approximately one million loons, shearwaters, phalaropes, ducks, gulls and geese migrate north in the spring along west Vancouver Island. These migrants, because of their concentration in large numbers, may be temporarily but critically vulnerable to oil pollution. The birds most likely to be directly affected by spills are breeding populations of alcids and wintering diving ducks, whereas ducks, geese, and shorebirds, which feed in the intertidal zone, may be hardest hit indirectly through destruction of their feeding habitat. Of the ducks threatened by destruction of their feeding habitat, seaducks are most vulnerable of all ducks as they rely most on the marine habitat for feeding purposes.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: A New Common Murre Colony in British Columbia

Year: 1975

Author(s): R. Wayne Campbell; John G. Ward; Michael G. Shepard

Type: Journal Article

Description:
The early stages of the establishment of a new Common Murre colony on the central west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia are documented. In 1969 at least four pairs of murres attempted nesting. The following year the number increased to six pairs, of which at least one fledged young. In subsequent years (to 1974), however, growth of the murre colony was retarded by a growing Glaucous-winged Gull population which eventually usurped habitat used by murres for nesting. One pair of murres nested (unsuccessfully) in 1974. Notes on success of nesting attempted, breeding cycle, and activity of non-breeding murres is presented. This colony is the third known for the province.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Reproductive dynamics of four plant communities of southwestern British Columbia

Year: 1974

Author(s): Jim Pojar

Type: Journal Article

Description:
A study of angiosperm reproductive biology was made in four plant communities in southwestern British Columbia. Species of all four communities have staggered, peak flowing times, resulting in phenological spectra. Anemophily is the major mode of pollination in a salt marsh, while entomophily predominates in a subalpine meadow. Two sphagnum bogs have more of a balance between wind and insect pollination. There are corresponding differences in the proportions of showy-flowered species in the communities. It is proposed that interspecific competition has greatly influences the evolution of both species and community flowering strategies. Biotic seed dispersal prevails in the salt march and bogs, while most of the subalpine meadow species are wind-dispersed. Species and community modes of disperal depend on the nature of the vegetation and the relative availability of dispersal vectors, as well as on diaspore morphology. Although vegetation reproduction and self-compatability are fairly common, the bulk of the flora and vegetation at all four sites has breeding systems promoting outcrossing. There is little evidence that the physical environments of these communities, all harsh in at least some respects, have selectively favored autogamous or agamosphermous species.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Birds and Disturbed Forest Succession After Logging in Pacific Rim National Park, Vancouver Island, British Columbia and A Contribution Towards the Development of an Interpretive Plan for Logged Areas

Year: 1974

Author(s): Nicholas Anthony Roe

Type: Academic Thesis

Description:
The relationship between birds and forest succession after logging were studied during the summer season of 1972 in the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone of Krajina (1965) in Pacific Rim National Park on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Birds were counted at eight sites representing five stages of forest succession along transects totalling 800 metres in length in each stage. The stages were as follows: (1) 2 years old - logged in 1970, not planted and supporting no tree growth (two transects of 400 m); (2) 8 years old - logged in 1964, burned and planted with Douglas fir, grand fir, and a few Sitka spruce, weith western hemlock and western red cedar also present (one 800 m transect); (3) 12 years old - logged in 1960, burned, and planted with Douglas fir, with western hemlock and western red cedar also present (two transects of 400 m); (4) 24 years old - logged in 1948, not planted but supporting growth of western hemlock, western red cedar and red alder (one 800 m transect); (5) mature forest with no history of logging, consisting of western hemlock, western red cedar and Pacific silver fir (two transects of 400 m). Transect counts of birds were supplemented by a spot-mapping method. The area surveyed was 0.8 ha per successional stage in both methods. Results from both methods were converted into biomass figures using standard weights of each species. Collected field data on each major vegetation species was analysed for each successional stage in order to assemble a description of the structure and compositon of the habitat. The separate stages and different types of forest succession contained bird populations that were different. Biomass of birds was greatest in the 24-year Unplanted Stage., and leas t in the Mature Forest Stage. Bird species diversity was greatest in the 8-year Planted Stage, and least in the 2-year Unplanted Stage. The 12-year Planted Stage has a low biomass and an intermediate species diversity of birds. Increases in biomass were highly positively correlated with increases in canopy coverage by red alder, and with increases in the number of ground cover species. Increases in bird species diversity were high positively correlated with increases in the number of tree species. These relationships suggest that monocultural plantations reduce the productivity (expressed in biomass) of birds in forest succession.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Breeding ecology of the black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani Audubon)

Year: 1974

Author(s): E. B. Hartwick

Type: Journal Article

Description:
Breeding behaviour and success of the black oystercatcher were followed during a study of foraging patterns of these birds on Cleland Island, British Columbia. Observations were made on nesting, copulation, and care of the young. Breeding success was relatively low, with losses occurring from predation and storms. This seems to be typical for the outer coast. Interactions with gulls played a large role in the behaviour and breeding success of the oystercatchers. Differences were noted between observations on Cleland and descriptions given in the literature.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Flora and Vegetation of Pacific Rim National Park: Phase 1, Long Beach

Year: 1972

Author(s): Marcus A. M. Bell

Type: Report (unpublished)

Description:
Three hundred and thirty eight vascular plant species comprising 198 genera and 69 families occur in the park, including 67 introductions. One hundred and twenty-six species are abundant and wide-spread, 185 rare to sparsely distributed, and 27 very rare within the park, including Habenaria chorisiana, Mecodium wrightii, and Crepis Nicaeensis. Bryophytes comprise a large part of the vegetation. A partial list of 147 mosses, 57 hepatics and 24 lichens is provided. All vascular plants are annotated for distribution and habitats within the park, flowering period, and other features as appropriate. Species are further related to the plant communities in which they occur, in order to maximize information on species ecology. Fourtenn major plant communities are defined on the basis of dominant vegetation and land form, and two on the basis of history of disturbance. Thirty nine tentative subcommities are briefly described. The five forested communities are dominated by one or more of sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western red cedar (Thuja plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), amabilis fir (Abies amabilis), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Two non-forested communities are on logged or other disturbed areas characterized by species which reflect more the history of disturbance and land use than natural site conditions. Seven non-forested communities are respectivly dominated by Sphagnum spp., yellow pond lily (Nupha polysepalum), woolly cinquefoiil (Potentilla villosa), beach ryegrass (Elymus mollis), mace-headed sedge (Carex macrocephala), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa), and eelgrass (Zostera marina). A summary chart for differentiating community types is provided, based on species composition and environmental features. The main environmental factors influencing vegtation pattern is undisturbed areas appear to be parent material, soil moisture conditions, and oceanic influences. Four representative soil types are discussed and related to community distribution. Podzolization and gleization are dominant soil processes in this area.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Native Swans Wintering on Vancouver Island over the Period 1969-71

Year: 1972

Author(s): Ian D. Smith; Donald A. Blood

Type: Journal Article

Description:
Counts of wintering native swans indicated that the Vancouver Island population increased by 129 per cent over the period 1969-71, and that the 1970-71 population contained a minimum of 1,076 birds. It is believed that most of the birds are Trumpeter Swans. Over the same period, the proportion of cygnets has been 22 per cent, 26 per cent and 25 per cent. Major wintering areas appear to be centered about sheltered salt-water estuaries. The proportion of birds wintering on these estuaries was highest during the most severe winter over the counting period.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Preliminary Survey of the Intertidal and Subtidal Marine Fauna and Flora of Pacific Rim National Park with Emphasis on the Long Beach Section

Year: 1971

Author(s): Gordon Robilliard

Type: Report (unpublished)

Description:
Pacific Rim National Park (the "Park") on the central west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, is divisible into three geographically and topographically distinct units. A preliminary survey of the marine intertidal and subtidal biota suggests that each unit is more or less unique with respect to its species composition, abundance, and distribution. The intertidal-subtidal environment of each section of the Park is comprised of a complex association of communities characterized by the physical habitat as well as by the biological assemblages present in these habitats. Three parameters are used to characterize the physical habitat. First, an area is either intertidal or subtidal, depending on its vertical distance above or below the mean lower low water (MLLW) tide level. Second, the degree of exposure of an area to the full force of the large waves and surf is categorized as 1) exposed to full force of wave shock and surge; 2) semi-protected from full force but receiving some relatively heavy wave action 3) protected from wave activity other than wind chop. Third, substratum is categorized as mud, sand, gravel, cobble, boulder, or solid rock (or some combination thereof) depending largely on the size of the component particles. Each habitat has a characteristic faunal assemblage (=biological community) associated with it. The species composition and abundance as well as some of the ecological interactions are described for each faunal assemblage with special emphasis on the exposed and semi-protected rocky intertidal habitats. A fairly detailed survey of these latter habitats reveals a distinct, visible vertical zonation pattern with four zones being recognized on the basis of vertical distance above MLLW and five zones on the basis of the vertical distribution of the dominant space-occupying or predatory species. Directly or indirectly (and often unknowingly), people exploit the marine organisms of the Park by collecting them for food, curios or curiosity, by driving their cars on the beach, or by walking on the animals especially on rocky shores. Most of the activity, restricted to the intertidal zone of Long Beach near the campsite area, has not had a marked effect on the biological community. However, as the influx of tourists increases, the level of exploitive activities will rise and may affect significant changes in the structure of the biological community. However, as the influx of tourists increases, the level of expoloitive activities will rise and may affect significant changes in the structure of the biological communities. Several species of mollusc, echinoderms, and crabs found in the Park are considered gourmet delights by many people, and thus could be over-exploited either by a sports fishery or a commercial enterprise. The preliminary nature of the survey is emphasized. A number of questions regarding: 1) the systematic, distribution, life history and ecology of many important species; and 2) the structure, stability, and dynamics of the biological communities, are posed with the suggestion that these questions be investigated before public utilization of the Park brings about significant changes.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Notes on the Natural History of Cleland Island, British Columbia, with Emphasis on the Breeding Bird Fauna

Year: 1967

Author(s): R. Wayne Campbell; David Stirling

Type: Paper

Description:
none

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Vegetation and History of the Sphagnum Bogs of the Tofino Area, Vancouver Island

Year: 1965

Author(s): Leslie Keith Wade

Type: Academic Thesis

Description:
The Sphagnum bogs of the Tofino-Ucluelet area of the western coast of Vancouver Island were studied from vegetational, edaphic, and historical aspects. An intergrated approach to these three aspects was attempted in order to give in a relatively limited time as complete a picture as possible of the bog ecosystem. The bog vegetation was studied on 110 sample plots using analytical and synthetic methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology. Ten different vegetation types were described and characterized, nine belong to the bog ecosystem and one to the surrounding scrub forest. The nine bog vegetation types consist of five distinct associations and one association composed of five variants.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Plant Associations and Succession in the Vegetation of The Sand Dunes of Long Beach, Vancouver Island

Year: 1963

Author(s): Richard Tatsuo Kuramoto

Type: Academic Thesis

Description:
The vegetation of the sand dunes of Long Beach, Vancouver Island, was studied on 116 sample plots. The purpose of this study was to describe the floristic and edaphic characteristics of the plant associations, to determine the major environmental factors controlling the distribution of the plant communities and to study the successional trends of the vegetation. The vegetation was described using the analytical and synthetical methods of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology. This thesis describes seven plant associations and four variants. The vegetation units are as follows: A. Foreshore habitats 1. Cakiletum edentulae, B. Blowout habitats 2. Poetum macranthae a. poosum macranthae b. abroniosum latifoliae, 3. Arctostaphyleto-Rhacomitrietum canescentis C. Habitats of the mobile dune ridge 4. Elymetum vancouverensis a. ammophilosum arenariae b. elymosum vancouverensis D. Habitats of the dune slack and stable dune ridge 5. Aireto-Ceratodontetum purpurei 6. Arctostaphyleto-Eurhynchietum oregani 7. Hetergenous communities in moist dune slack habitats E. The dune forest habitat 8. Piceeto-Gaultherieto-Maianthemetum dialatati Important environmental factors which control the distribution of these associations are the level of winter and storm tides, wind, the amount of sand burial and blowout that occurs in the habitat and the amount of available soil water. The first stages of succession begins in the unstable habitats of the Elymetum vancouverensis and Poetum macranthae. With stabilization of the habitat, these associations are suceeded by the Aireto-Ceratodontetum purpurei and the Arctostaphyletum-Eurhynchietum oregani in exposed habitats and the Arctostaphyleto-Rhacomitrietum canescentis in habitats well protected from wind. All vegetation eventually reaches the climax Piceeto-Gaultherieto-Maianthemetum dilatati.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: A Study of the Occurrence of Amphibians in Relation to A Bog Succession, Itasca State Park, Minnesota.

Year: 1955

Author(s): William H. Marshall; Murray F. Buell

Type: Journal Article

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: [Material from the Meares Island Habitat Protection Working Group]

Year: 1891

Author(s): [Meares Island IRMP Habitat Protection Working Group]

Type: Committee File

Description:
Includes:volume 1: file of agendas and minutes, ranging in date from April 23, 1981 to December 14, 1982; volume 2: file of correspondence, ranging in date from May 14, 1980 to August 27, 1982;volume 3: file of miscellaneous reports, submissions, and so on, including a joint submission by the NTC, FOCS, Sierra Club, and Village of Tofino.

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Bald Eagles and Forestry.

Year: n.d.

Author(s): F L Bunnell

Type: Journal Article

 

View Details

Add To List
Remove From List

Title: Amphibian Inventory in Clayoquot Sound

Year: n.d.

Author(s): Natural Resources Canada; Canadian Forest Service

Type: Brochure